Navigating China’s Evolving Legal Landscape: A 10-Point Checklist for Foreign Bu…

China’s first-to-file trademark system and challenging IP enforcement environment make protecting intellectual property highly difficult for foreign companies.

Robust IP protection is challenging but vital in China. Trademarks and patents registered elsewhere have little to no force in China. IP Theft and infringement are persistent (and increasing) threats.

You must not only register your patents and trademarks in China, you also must monitor their use and enforce your rights. China has a “first-to-file” system, which means the first person to file for a particular trademark will usually get it, regardless of who used it first. As a result, “trademark squatting,” where local entities register foreign trademarks before the original owners can, is a common issue. Beyond trademarks and patents, consider non-disclosure agreements and non-compete clauses for employees and business partners, especially when sharing sensitive information. See, The Five Keys to Protecting Your IP from China.

China IP Protection Strategies

  • Prioritize early IP registrations in China, especially trademarks.
  • Diligently scout for infringements and assertively defend your rights.
  • Be judicious in information sharing until you have comprehensive IP safeguards in place.
  • Liberally use non-disclosure agreements (like China NNN Agreements) for employees, partners, and pretty much any company with which you do business in China.

4. Anti-Bribery and Anti-Corruption: Navigating Payments Legally

Navigating China’s strict anti-graft laws and enforcement poses compliance challenges for foreign firms accustomed to different norms regarding gifts, hospitality and acceptable business practices.

Foreign entities are required to adhere to China’s stringent anti-corruption measures, in tandem with their native anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, exemplified by statutes like the FCPA.

Guidelines for Anti-Bribery Compliance in China

  • Establish a comprehensive compliance policy complemented by a transparent code of conduct.
  • Provide anti-bribery educational sessions to your staff.
  • Implement robust financial governance mechanisms and conduct routine audits.
  • Conduct thorough due diligence on intermediaries, collaborators, and prospective acquisitions, and any other Chinese company with which you will be or are doing business. This is a must.

5. Navigating China Imports and Exports: China Customs and Duties

Frequent changes to China’s import and export regulations, product classifications, and port-specific procedures make compliance complex for foreign companies.

Understanding China’s import/export regulations, along with its customs and tariff structures, is becoming more challenging, both because of geopolitics, and because the Chinese government no longer hesitates to use these to help fund itself or to go after foreign companies/countries it does not like.

The frequent changes in product categories, assessments, and protocols—and even variations by port—demand agility. Failing to adhere to China’s import and export laws can (and increasingly does) result in severe consequences.

Guidelines for China Import/Export Compliance

  • Regularly monitor amendments to product classifications, lists of restricted items, and tariff rates.
  • Cultivate your relationships with certified customs brokers and foster good relations with Chinese customs officials.
  • Leverage the benefits of free trade pacts and capitalize on tariff exemption schemes, when applicable.
  • In the face of customs-related inquiries or issues, immediately seek legal counsel. See China Customs Problem? Keep Your Mouth Shut!

6. China Product Liability: Protecting Your Business

China’s stringent product liability laws and consumer safety expectations create extensive risks around defects and quality control issues that foreign companies need to manage.

Defective or unsafe products made in or imported into China face hefty penalties both from the Chinese government and from Chinese consumers. Whether you’re importing goods from China or selling within the country, understanding your potential liabilities is crucial. This extends beyond just the manufacturing process. Are you sure your entire supply chain adheres to safety and quality standards? Comprehensive liability coverage and supply chain quality control can be essential safeguards.

Guidelines for China Product Liability Assurance

  • Diligently assess potential liability across your entire supply and distribution frameworks.
  • Establish robust safety and quality assurance measures.
  • Seek international compliance certifications from the suppliers in your chain.
  • Secure comprehensive product liability insurance, emphasizing especially high-risk goods.

7. China Dispute Resolution: Approaches and Mechanisms in China

Resolving business disputes in China can be challenging for foreign parties, given systemic issues around local protectionism, arbitrary rulings, and enforcement obstacles.

In China, business disagreements and contract violations are incredibly common. Multiple paths such as litigation, arbitration, and mediation exist, each with its own advantages and drawbacks for international businesses.

The real value of a favorable judgment or decision lies in its ability to be enforced. Grasping the intricacies of executing judgments, whether they originate from a domestic court or an arbitration body, is fundamental to formulating a sound dispute strategy and drafting a contract that can work for you.

Guidelines for China Dispute Management

  • Ensure all your contracts incorporate well-articulated dispute resolution provisions.
  • Select the most appropriate venue for your conflicts.
  • Familiarize yourself with the timelines, protocols, and enforceability associated with various dispute resolution methods.
  • Consider the benefits and challenges of domestic versus international arbitration centers.
  • Establish preemptive strategies for potential litigation defenses.


Navigating China is a formidable task for foreign companies, and missteps in critical areas like licensing, IP, contracts, data privacy, and HR can lead to setbacks ranging from IP loss to abrupt termination of Chinese operations.

The above highlights ten key legal domains that frequently trip up foreign players in China. Mastering compliance across these spheres demands a multi-pronged strategy that should, at minimum, include the following:

  • Partnering with experienced and bilingual legal counsel who understand China’s regulatory environment.
  • Conducting in-depth due diligence on potential partners, investments, and business operations to uncover red flags early.
  • Implementing internal compliance systems and providing regular legal training to employees, especially for high-risk areas like anti-bribery and data privacy.
  • Closely tracking China’s regulatory updates across pertinent industries and regions.
  • Diversifying supply chains and maintaining contingency plans to mitigate fallout from geopolitical tensions.
  • Ensuring your corporate values align with stances on sensitive issues like China relations and human rights.

What are you seeing out there? Are there any issues you wish we had covered in this post but did not? If so, please let us kn0w in the comments and we will do our best to write about those.